%0 Journal Article
%J Computers & Structures
%D 1991
%T Nonlinear finite element for modeling reinforced concrete columns in three-dimensional dynamic analysis
%A Manolis G. Sfakianakis
%A Michael N. Fardis
%P 1405–1419
%U http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004579499190411E
%V 40
%X A new finite element is proposed for slender, flexure-dominated reinforced concrete columns subjected to cyclic biaxial bending with axial load, and its implementation into a program for the nonlinear static or dynamic analysis of structures in three-dimensions, is described. The element belongs to the class of distributed inelasticity discrete models for the nonlinear dynamic response analysis of frame structures to earthquake ground motions. The element tangent flexibility matrix is constructed at each time step by Gauss-Lobatto integration of the section tangent flexibility matrix along the member length. The tangent flexibility matrix of the cross-section relates the increment of the vector of the three normal stress resultants N, My, Mz, to the vector increment of the section deformation measures. ϵo, ϑy, ϑz, and is constructed on the basis of the bounding surface of the cross-section, which is defined as the locus of points in the space of the normalized N, My, Mz, which correspond to ultimate strength. The bounding surface concept enables the model to produce realistic predictions for the nonlinear response of the cross-section to any arbitrary loading path in the space N-My-Mz.The bounding surface is introduced and utilized in a very flexible manner, enabling a variety of cross-sectional shapes to be treated in a unified way. As this flexibility is at the expense of computational simplicity and memory size requirements, emphasis is placed on algorithmic techniques to facilitate numerical implementation and to increase computational efficiency.